Hunebedden (Dutch dolmens) in proportion

About orientation patterns with hunebedden (in European context)

Chronology Neolithic Age

In the previous century a few attempts have been made to come to a conclusive European partioning and chronology for the megalithic buildings. Because of the many transitional, mixture and neo forms this turned out to be an impossible task. On the other hand it has led to a good idea of the parallel developments in the different regions. Before the rise of grave tombs we find a period of low long mounds - being called longbarrow in the west and kurgan in the east. The mounds differ by size quite a lot. On one hand the grave pits in those mounds ’megalithisize’, on the other hand the megalithic graves get a more and more autonomous position. The graves were destined for an individual or a couple, but it didn’t take long before the graves were used for additional burials. On principle it’s possible to have four methods to do so: using the same chamber, devide the chamber in compartments, create additional chambers in the mound, create a new chamber nearby with it’s own mound. Those solutions occur simultaneously in the different regions. A characteristic distinction can be made between the chambers in an earthen mound (Langbett) and the ones in a mound of small boulders (cairn). In a cairn they worked to the inside, connecting the chambers by a corridor. In a Langbett they worked to the outside, all chambers having their own entrance. The devision in compartments seems to have taken place with existing chambers only. The entrance seems to be an important aspect of the megalithic buildings. Again, all possible styles have been applied: in the long wall or the short wall, from above or via a pathway with or without a gate or passage. In Brittany we find passages with chambers straightaway (tombe á couloir) [1.1]. In Eastern Germany the chambers with passages (Gangrab) belong to the latest phase and they are predated by chambers with a simple gate [1.2].

The hunebedden get on somewhere in the middle of the process. Every chamber has its own mound and the heigth of it compares with that of a Langbett. Strikingly none of the chambers have compartments - except for D19 in Drouwen, which has a small one [1.3]. All entrances seem to have a threshold, but not all of the hunebedden have a passage of stones. Probably those missing them still did have a passage made of transitory materials. The existance of a gate/passage and of compartments is often seen as a sign of additional burials. Since no skeletons are preserved, it’s hard to say if there have been additional burials frequently.

Setting up megalithic monuments may not be seen as an uterance of one specific ceramic culture. In the norhwest of Europe the building takes place during the middle of the Funnel Beaker Culture. Further on in Europe building with megaliths goes together with other ceramic cultures. The time span for building is about 200 years in the North and West Group of the Funnel Beaker Culture. Afterwards the monuments stayed in use for quite a long period.

When were the megalithic monuments set up?

The next overview shows the evolution of Neolithic cultures per region and places the set up of megalithic monuments within it. The column Time span is justified further on, in an overview with the most well-known indications for a phase or group.

RegionPhaseGroupsTime spanBuilding of ...
DrenthePre-Drouwen *)Swifterbant????-3350 BC
(West group)Horizont 1Drouwen A,3350-3300 BCHunebedden
[1.4]Horizont 2Drouwen C3300-3250 BCHunebedden
Horizont 3Drouwen B, D13250-3150 BCHunebedden
Horizont 4Drouwen D2, Havelte E13150-3000 BC
Horizont 5Havelte E23000-2900 BC
Horizont 6Havelte F2900-2850 BC
Horizont 7Havelte G2850-2800 BC
Southern Scandinavia;EN-IVolling, Svaleklint, Svenstorp, Siggeneben, Satrup3850-3550 BC
(Noord group)EN-IIVirum, Fuchsberg3550-3250 BCDolmens, Passage graves
[1.5]MN-ITroldebjerg, Klintebakke3250-3000 BCDolmens, Passage graves
MN-II/IV(Diffusie)3000-2900 BC
MN-VStore Valby2900-2750 BC
Schleswig-HolsteinFN-IaRosenhof, Dummer4250-4050 BC
(Noord group)FN-IbSiggeneben4050-3750 BC
[1.6]FN-IcSatrup3700-3300 BC
FN-IIFuchsberg3500-3300 BCDolmens, Ganggräber
MN-I3300-3100 BC
MN-II3100-3000 BC
MN-III/V3000-2800 BC
MecklenburgFN-II **)3550-3300 BCUrdolmens, Erweiterte dolmens
(Noord group)MN-I3300-3100 BCGrossdolmens, Ganggräber
[1.7]MN-II/III3100-2900 BC
MN-IV/VKugelamphoren-Kultur2900-2600 BC
KujawySarnowo4500-4000 BC
(East group)Pikutkowo4000-3800 BC
[1.8]Wiórek, Lubon3800-3350 BCDolmens, Ganggräber
Lubon3350-2750 BC
Normandy en BrittanyNéol. AncienLa Hoguette, Limbourg, Blicquy7000-5000 BC
(Atlantic)Néol. Moyen IPinacle/Fouaillages, Cerny, Castellic5000-4200 BCTombes à couloir
[1.9]Néol. Moyen II4200-3200 BCTombes à couloir
Néol.Final3200-2500 BCSépultures, Allées couvertes
Chalcolithique2500-???? BC

*) The existance of a Pre-Drouwen Funnel Beaker Culture is open for discussion.
**) Schuldt uses the old-fashioned and problematic indication FN-C. He dates the findings as ’the youngest phase of the FN’, which is interpreted here as FN-II.

Dating the developments in the Neolithic Age

The chart below gives an overview of some time indications as used in specialist literature. It isn’t needed as a reference for this website, but it’s usefull when studying the specialist literature (and is meanwhile updated from it). The table is sorted in alphabetical order of the name of a group, phase or culture. Only the most well-know names are listed. Since the periodization of a culture can differ per region, extra information is added in the column Region/Culture. Datings may vary per author sometimes. The columns Dat. From To show the dates that are found with an author. In the final column you find a reference. (See also the bibligraphy on the page Literature.) The next ways of dating are used (the column Dat.):

The time spans under the column Time BC have been calculated from the columns Dat. From To. In order to do so, a rough method is used: Calibrated and relative datings are simply copied to the Time BC field. Uncalibrated BC has been transformed to uncalibrated BP first by adding 1950 to it. With the uncalibrated BP the limits for the calibrated values are read from the curve of Pearson [1.11]. The average is finally used for the Time BC. In particular this final step is problematic due to the so called ’wiggles’.

Abbreviations of ceramic cultures are explained at the end of the chart.

Name Time BC Region/Culture Dat. From To Reference
AOO 2700-2450 All-over ornamented culture cBC 2700 2450 Bakker 1992, p.xiii
Barbed wire 2050-1850 Bronze Age, Barbed Wire Culture cBC 2050 1850 Bakker 1992, p.xiii
Begleitkeramik 5500-5230 La Hoguette, Jura / Uppe-Rhine, Caridial-influences BP* 6500 LBK-Ia Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.14-15
Bischheim 4300-4200 Aldenhovener Platte cBC* 4300 4200 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.19
Blicquy 5050-5000 Belgium, related to VSG BP* 6150 6010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.46-47
Cardial Atlantique 6900-4500 Pyrenees, Poitou + Garonne, Midi cBC* 6900 4500 Roussot-Larroque & Burnez, p.130
Castellic (neo-fase) 3950-3850 Southern Brittany cBC* 3950 3850 Patton 1992, p.148
Cerny 4800-4200 Northwest France cBC* 4800 4200 Boujot & Cassen 1992, p.205
Cerny 4600-4450 France, Bassin Parisien (after: Constantin 1989) BP* 5710 5510 Chancerel ea. 1992, p.171
Chalcolithique vanaf 2100 France (after: L’Helgouac’h, 1990) cBC* 2100 Boujot & Cassen 1992, p.196
Dummer/Rosenhof 4550-3900 Northern German interior, Funel Beaker cBC* 4550 3900 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
EGK 2900-2450 Single grave culture cBC 2900 2450 Bakker 1992, p.xiii
EGK phase 1 2800-2750 Late Neolithic A cBC* 2800 2750 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.35
EGK phase 2 2750-2650 Late Neolithic A cBC* 2750 2650 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.35
EGK phase 3 2650-2550 Late Neolithic A cBC* 2650 2550 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.35
EGK phase 4 2550-2400 Late Neolithic A cBC* 2550 2400 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.35
Ellerbek/Ertebolle 5500-4300 Northern German interior, Ellerbek cBC* 5500 4300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
EN:A (Old-fashioned) Parallel to Oxie Group Bakker 1994a, p.29
EN:B (Old-fashioned) Parallel to Volling Group, Svaleklint Group Bakker 1994a, p.29
EN:C (Old-fashioned) Parallel to Virum Group, Fuchsberg Group Bakker 1994a, p.29
EN-I 3850-3550 Southern Scandinavia, early Volling Group, Svaleklint Group BC 3100 2800 Bakker 1992, p.89
EN-II 3550-3250 Southern Scandinavia, late Volling-, Virum-, Fuchsberg Group BC 2800 2600 Bakker 1992, p.86
Ertebolle 4700-4000 Jutland/Funen, Ellerbek cBC* 4700 4000 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Ertebolle 4700-3900 Seeland, Ellerbek cBC* 4700 3900 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Ertebolle 4400-3900 Schonen, Ellerbek cBC* 4400 3900 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Ertebolle/Ellerbek 5500-4300 Northern German interior, Funel Beaker cBC* 5500 4300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
FN-Ia 4250-4050 Rosenhof, Funel Beaker North Group BC* 3420 3390 Hoika 1994, p.99
FN-Ib 4050-3730 Siggeneben, Funel Beaker North Group BC* 3300 2960 Hoika 1994, p.99
FN-Ic 3800-3550 Satrup, Funel Beaker North Group, Nachricht: after Brindley 1986 cBC* 3800 3550 Bakker 1994a, p.55
FN-Ic 3780-3380 Satrup, Funel Beaker North Group BC* 3000 2750 Hoika 1994, p.99
FN-II 3550-3050 Fuchsberg, Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3550 3050 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
FN-II 3630-3350 Fuchsberg, Funel Beaker North Group BC* 2850 2600 Hoika 1994, p.99
FN-II 3550-3400 Fuchsberg, Funel Beaker North Group, Nachricht: after Brindley 1986 cBC* 3550 3400 Bakker 1994a, p.55
FN-A 3720-3360 (Old-fashioned) Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3720 3360 Bakker 1994a, p.55
FN-B 3790-3600 (Old-fashioned) Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3720 3360 Bakker 1994a, p.55
FN-C 3730-3360 (Old-fashioned) Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3720 3360 Bakker 1994a, p.55
Fouillages/Pinacle 4800-4500 Néol. Moyen I, Iles Anglo-Normandes cBC* 4800 4500 Patton 1992, p.147
Fuchsberg 3550-3400 Jutland/Funen, FN-II, Funel Beaker, Nachricht: after Brindley 1986 cBC* 3550 3400 Bakker 1994a, p.55
Fuchsberg 3550-3050 Jutland/Funen, FN-II, Funel Beaker cBC* 3550 3050 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Fuchsberg 3630-3350 Jutland/Funen, FN-II, Funel Beaker BC* 2850 2600 Hoika 1994, p.99
Grossgartach 5000-4700 Aldenhovener Platte, before Planig-Friedberg cBC* 5000 4700 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.19
Hinkelstein 5060-5010 HST-I en HST-II, Aldenhovener Platte, before Grossgartach rBC 5060 5010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.16
la Hoguette 6000-5300 Jura, Upper Rhine cBC* 6000 5300 Roussot-Larroque & Burnez 1992, p.132
Horizont 1 3400-3350 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 3400 3350 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 2 3350-3300 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 3350 3300 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 3 3300-3200 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 3300 3200 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 4 3200-3050 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 3200 3050 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 5 3050-2950 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 3050 2950 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 6 2950-2900 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 2950 2900 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 7 2900-2850 Brindley typochronology, Funel Beaker West Group cBC* 2900 2850 Brindley & Lanting 1994, p.138
Horizont 1-7 50 yr later Brindley typochronology, Adjustment of the datings Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.32,68
KAK 3180-2850 Kugelamphoren Kultur, Norh Group (compare MN-IV/V) cBC 3180 2850 Bakker 1992, p.xiii
KB, Bell Beaker 2550-2050 Bell Beaker Culture cBC 2550 2050 Bakker 1992, p.xiii
La Hoguette 5500-5230 Jura, Upper Rhine, Begleitkeramik with Cardial influences BP* 6500 LBK-Ia Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.14-15
Langeland B 4150-3800 Langeland, Funel Beaker cBC* 4150 3800 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Langeland C 3650-3050 Langeland, Funel Beaker cBC* 3650 3050 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
LBK 5325-5000 Linear Pottery, Southern Limburg löss and Aldenhovener Platte cBC* 5325 5000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.13
LBK Ia 5325-5230 Linear Pottery, Southern Limburg löss and Aldenhovener Platte cBC* 5325 5230 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.45
LBK Ib-d 5230-5110 Linear Pottery, Southern Limburg löss and Aldenhovener Platte cBC* 5230 5110 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.45
LBK IIa-d 5110-5010 Linear Pottery, Southern Limburg löss and Aldenhovener Platte cBC* 5110 5010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.45
Limburg 5230-5010 Rhine-Maas Group and Seine-Schelde Group, Context LBK Ib-IId rBC 5230 5010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.15
Linear Pottery 5325-5000 LBK Ia t/m LBK IId, Hungary, Central-Europe up to the Rhine cBC* 5325 5000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.13
LN-A 2800-2400 Late Neolithic A, Single Grave, AOO, VL from 1c cBC* 2800 2400 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.35
LN-B 2400-1875 Late Neolithic B, Bell Beaker, Begleitkeramik cBC* --- 1875 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.41
Lubon 3350-2750 Kujawy (Poland), Funel Beaker BC* 2650 2200 Niesiolowska 1994, p.334
Lubon + Wiórek 3750-3000 Kujawy (Poland), Funel Beaker cBC* 3750 3000 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Merzbach-dal M I-XV=LBK IId, Aldenhovener Platte Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.44
Merzbach XI-XIII 5300-5150 LBK IIb/c, Aldenhovener Platte cBP* 6170 6290 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.44
Michelbergcultuur MK-I t/m MK-V, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 5350 4700 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MK-I 4200-4075 Michelberg Culture, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 5350 5250 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MK-II 4075-3950 Michelberg Culture, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 5300 5150 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MK-III 3950-3870 Michelberg Culture, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 5150 5000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MK-IV 3870-3700 Michelberg Culture, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 5100 4950 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MK-V 3700-3600 Michelberg Culture, Nothern France up to Nothern Germany BP* 4950 4700 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.8
MN-I 3250-3000 S.Scandinavia, Ia: Troldebjerg Group(short time), Ib: Klintebakke Group BC 2600 2450 Bakker 1992, p.90
MN-Ib 3220-3095 Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3220 3095 Bakker 1994a, p.55
MN-II 3110-3010 Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 3110 3350 Bakker 1994a, p.55
MN-II/IV 3000-2900 S.Scandinavia, diversity in ceramic styles BC 2450 2350 Bakker 1992, p.90
MN-IV/V 2900-2600 Funel Beaker North Group, Mecklenburg, Kugelamphoren-Kultur BC* 2300 2130 Nagel 1985, p.35
MN-V 2950-2800 Funel Beaker North Group cBC* 2950 2800 Bakker 1994a, p.55
MN-V 2900-2750 S.Scandinavia, Store Valby Group BC 2350 2200 Bakker 1992, p.90
MN-A 4200-3400 Middle Neolithic A (Soutern Limburg), MK cBC* 4200 3400 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.12,62
MN-A 4000-3350 Middle Neolithic A (Swifterbant), MK cBC* 4000 3400 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.12,62
MN-B 3350-2800 Middle Neolithic B, Funel Beaker cBC* 3350 2800 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.32,68
MN-B 3400-2850 Drouwen to Havelte, Funel Beaker, Nachricht: after Brindley 1986 cBC* 3400 2850 Bakker 1994a, p.55
Néol. Ancien 6900-4500 France, see: La Hoguette, Cardial Atlantique, Roucadourien
Néol. Moyen 5100-3000 France (after: L’Helgouac’h, 1990) cBC* 5100 3000 Boujot & Cassen 1992, p.196
Néol. Moyen I 4800-4200 France, see: Pinacle/Fouillages, Cerny
Néol. Moyen II 4200-3700 France cBC* 4200 3700 Letterle 1992, p.183
Néol. Final 3000-2100 France (after: L’Helgouac’h, 1990) cBC* 3000 2100 Boujot & Cassen 1992, p.196
Oxie/Svenstorf 3800-3200 Schonen A, Funel Beaker cBC* 3800 3200 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Pikutkowo 4000-3800 Kujawy (Poland), Funel Beaker BC* 3300 3100 Niesiolowska 1994, p.334
Pinacle/Fouillages 4800-4500 Néol. Moyen I, Iles Anglo-Normandes cBC* 4800 4500 Patton 1992, p.147
Planig-Friedberg 4700-4600 Aldenhovener Platte, before Bischheim cBC* 4700 4600 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.19
Pre-Drouwen tot 3600 Late Swifterbant (after Lanting) or non-megalitic Funel Beaker (after Hogestijn) cBC* tot 3600 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.22
Rhine-Maas 5230-5010 Limburg Group, Context LBK Ib-IId rBC 5230 5010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.15
Rosenhof/Dummer 4550-3900 Northern German interior, FN-Ia, Funnel Beaker cBC* 4550 3900 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Rosenhof 4250-4050 Northern German interior, FN-Ia, Funnel Beaker BC* 3420 3390 Hoika 1994, p.99
Rössen 4600-4300 Aldenhovener Platte, before Bischheim cBC* 4600 4300 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.19
Roucadourien 6900-4800 France, west flank Central Highland cBC* 6900 4800 Roussot-Larroque & Burnez 1992, p.134
Sarnowo 4500-4000 Kujawy (Poland), Funnel Beaker BC* 3700 3300 Niesiolowska 1994, p.334
Sarnowo 4550-4300 Kujawy (Poland), Funnel Beaker cBC* 4550 4300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Satrup 3800-3550 Northern German interior, FN-Ic, Funnel Beaker, Nachricht: after Brindley 1986 cBC* 3800 3550 Bakker 1994a, p.55
Satrup 3700-3300 Northern German interior, FN-Ic, Funnel Beaker cBC* 3700 3300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Satrup 3780-3380 Northern German interior, FN-Ic, Funnel Beaker BC* 3000 2750 Hoika 1994, p.99
Schonen A 3800-3200 Schonen (Oxie/Svenstorf Group), Funnel Beaker cBC* 3800 3200 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Seeland A/B 4000-3300 Seeland, Funnel Beaker cBC* 4000 3300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Seeland C 3750-3200 Seeland, Funnel Beaker cBC* 3750 3200 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Seine-Schelde 5230-5010 Limburg Group, Context LBK Ib-IId rBC 5230 5010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.15
Siggeneben 4000-3600 Northern German interior, FN-Ib, Funnel Beaker cBC* 4000 3600 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Siggeneben 4050-3730 Northern German interior, FN-Ib, Funnel Beaker BC* 3300 2960 Hoika 1994, p.99
Stein Group 3450-2550 Belgium, Cultuer between Funnel Beaker and SOM, megalitic (± 2800 v.C.) BP* 4700 4000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.73
Svenstorf/Oxie 3800-3200 Schonen A, Funnel Beaker cBC* 3800 3200 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
Swifterbant-early 5200-4350 Swifterbant Culture, Flevopolder, Bronneger BP* 6130 5530 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.54
Swifterbant-middle 4200-4000 Swifterbant Culture, Flevopolder, Hazendonk cBC* 4200 4000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.20
Swifterbant-late 3900-3800 Swifterbant Culture, Flevopolder cBC* 3900 3800 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.20
VL-1a 3200-3100 Vlaardingen Culture, SOM, Hazendonk cBC* 3200 3100 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.34
VL-1b 3050-2850 Vlaardingen Culture, SOM, Hazendonk cBC* 3050 2850 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.33
VL-1c ± 2800-2700 Vlaardingen Culture, SOM, Voorschoten, Zandwerven, Hekelingen BP* 4190 4110 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.69,70
VL-2a ± 2700-2600 Vlaardingen Culture, SOM, Voorschoten, Hekelingen, Haamstede BP* --- 4080 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.70
VL-2b ± 2600-2500 Vlaardingen Culture with Single Grave and AOO, Hazendonk, Voorschoten cBC* --- 2500 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.71
VN-A 5325-4700 Funnel Beaker West Group, Early Neolithic A, Linear Pottery cBC* 5325 4700 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.12,13
VN-B 4700-4200 Funnel Beaker West Group, Early Neolithic B (Southern Limburg) cBC* 4700 4200 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.12,19
VN-B 4700-4000 Funnel Beaker West Group, Early Neolithic B (Swifterbant) cBC* 4700 4000 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.12,19
Volling 3950-3300 Jutland/Funen, Funnel Beaker cBC* 3950 3300 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283
VSG 5050-5000 Groupe de Villeneuve/Saint-Germain, related to Blicquy BP* 6150 6010 Lanting & vd. Plicht 1999/2000, p.46-47
Wiórek 3800-3350 Kujawy (Poland), Funnel Beaker BC* 3100 2650 Niesiolowska 1994, p.334
Wiórek + Lubon 3750-3000 Kujawy (Poland), Funnel Beaker cBC* 3750 3000 Meurers-Balke & Weniger 1994, p.283

Abbreviations of ceramic cultures

The cultures below are listed in chronological order. Mostly they overlap each other in time. Hence, one may not take the arrangement in early, middle and late Neolithic Age very strict. Furthermore the delimitations count for Holland only and are defined differently elsewhere. (The abbreviations are the Dutch ones followed by the German and English translations in parenthesis.)

Early Neolithic Age (VN-A)

  • LBK of BK = Liniaire bandkeramiek ( (Linear) Bandkeramik, Linear (Band) pottery/ceramics/ware culture, Incised ware culture)
  • BQY = Blicquy Group
  • SBK = (Stichbandkeramik)
  • Middle Neolithic Age (MN-A)

  • MK = Michelsberg Culture (Michelsberg Kultur)
  • Middle Neolithic Age (MN-B)

  • STK = Diepsteek-keramiek (Tiefstichkeramik, Stroked pottery culture, Stroke ornamented culture)
  • TRB = Trechterbeker cultuur (TBK = Trichterbecherkultur, Funnel beaker culture)
  • KAK = Kogelamphoren cultuur (Kugelamphoren Kultur, Globular ampora culture)
  • VL = Vlaardingen cultuur
  • SOM = Seine-Oise-Marne cultuur
  • Late Neolithic Age (LN-A)

  • EGK = Enkelgraf cultuur (Einzelgrab Kultur, Single Grave culture)
  • SVB = Standvoetbeker cultuur (Protruding Foot Beaker culture)
  • CW = Snoerbeker cultuur (Schnurbecher Kultur, Schnurkeramik, Corded ware culture)
  • AOO = All-over-ornamented cultuur
  • Late Neolithic Age (LN-B)

  • KB = Klokbeker cultuur (Glockenbecher Kultur, Bell beaker culture)
  • Early Bonze Age

  • WKD = Wikkeldraad cultuur (Wickelschnur Kultur, Barbed wire culture)