Hunebedden (Dutch dolmens) in proportion

About orientation patterns with hunebedden (in European context)

Bibliography


  • Bakker 1973, De westgroep van de trechterbekercultuur
  • Bakker 1992, The Dutch Hunebedden (AS 2)
  • Bakker 1994a, Bemerkungen zu Datierungsmethoden (UMSSH 1994 - ITS 1)
  • Bakker 1994b, Eine Dolmenflasche und ein Dolmen aus Groningen (UMSSH 1994 - ITS 1)
  • Bakker & Waterbolk 1980, De Nederlandse hunebedden
  • Behrens & Schröter 1980, Siedlungen und Graäber der Trichterbecherkultur und Schnurkeramik bei Halle (Saale)
  • Beier 1988, Die Kugelamphorenkultur im Mittelelbe-Saale-Gebiet und in der Altmark
  • Borlase 1887, The dolmens of Ireland
  • Boujot & Cassen 1992, Le developpement des premières architectures funeraires monumentales en France Occidentale (RAO5 - CIN 17)
  • Briard 1989, Mégalithes de haute Bretagne (DAF 23)
  • Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, A re-assessment of the hunebedden O1, D30 and D40 (PH 33/34)
  • Burl 2005 (1983), Prehistoric astronomy and ritual
  • Chancerel ea. 1992, Le debut du Neolithique en Basse-Normandië (RAO 5 - CIN 17)
  • Chevalier 1999, Orientations of 935 dolmens of southern France (AA nr 24 / JHA xxx, 1999)
  • Cullen 1996, Astronomy and mathematics in ancient China: the Zhou bi suan jing
  • van Giffen 1929, Hunebedden van Nederland
  • van Giffen 1960, Jaarverslag aan de minister van Onderwijs, Kunsten en Wetenschap (archief RCE)
  • Gimbutas 1956, The prehistory of Eastern Europe, Part 1 (ASPR 20)
  • van Ginkel 1999 (e.a.), Hunebedden - Monumenten van een steentijdcultuur
  • González-García & Costa-Ferrer 2003, Possible astronomical orientation of the Dutch hunebedden (UAO 59)
  • González-García & Costa-Ferrer 2006, Orientation of TRB-west meglithic monuments (JHA xxxvii, 2006)
  • González-García 2008, The orientation of dolmens in Bulgaria (GAAM 2008)
  • Heggie 1982, Megalithic Science
  • Hoika 1987, Das Mittelneolithikum zur Zeit der Trichterbecherkultur in Nordostholstein
  • Hoika 1994, Zur Gliederung der früneolithischen Trichterbecherkultur in Holstein (UMSSH 1994 - ITS 1)
  • Hoskin 2001, Tombs, temples and their orientation
  • Hoyrup 2002, Lengths, widths and surfaces - A portrait of Old Babylonian algebra and its kin
  • Kangshen 1999 (e.a.), The nine chapters on the mathematical art
  • Katz 2007 (e.a.), The mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India and Islam - A sourcebook
  • Klein 1973, Ice age hunters of the Ukraine
  • Langbroek 2004, Huilen naar de maan (PIT 2)
  • Lanting & v.d. Plicht 2002, De 14C-chronologie van de Nederlandse pre- en protohistorie, III: Neolithicum (PH 41/42)
  • Letterle 1992, Quelques reflexions a propos de la chronologie du Neolithique moyen d’Armorique (RAO 5 - CIN 17)
  • Müller 1997, Zur absolutchronologischen Datierung der europäischen Megalithik (TUI - Festschrift Strahm)
  • Nagel 1985, Die Erscheinungen der Kugelamphorenkultur im Norden der DDR
  • Nowell & Errico 2007, Layer IV Molodova I Ukraine
  • Patton 1992, Entre Cerny et Castellic: Le groupe Pinacle/Fouaillages (RAO 5 - CIN 17)
  • Ridderstad 2009, Orientation of the nothern gate of the Goseck Neolithic rondel
  • Robson 2002, Words and pictures: New light on Plimpton 322 (MAA 109)
  • Roussot-Larroque & Burnez 1992, Aux sources du Néolithique Atlantique, le Cardial, le ’Danubien’ et les autres (RAO 5 - CIN 17)
  • le Roux (ed.) 1992, Paysans et batisseurs (RAO 5 - CIN 17)
  • Ruggles 1984, Megalithic Astronomy
  • Ruggles 1999, Astronomy in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland
  • Ruggles & Whittle (red.), Astronomy and Society in Britain during the period 4000-1500 BC
  • Schuldt 1972, Die mecklenburgischen Megalithgräber
  • Sprockhoff 1938, Handbuch der Urgeschichte Deutschlands, Band 3, die Nordische Megalithkultur
  • Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas der Megalithgräber, Teil 1, Schleswig-Holstein
  • Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas der Megalithgräber, Teil 2, Mecklenburg, Vorpommern und Brandenburg
  • Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas der Megalithgräber, Teil 3, Niedersachsen
  • v.d. Waerden 1954 (3rd ed.), Science awakening I
  • v.d. Waerden 1983, Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations
  • LASA 2003, Presseinformation 07.08.2003
  • Abbreviations:
    AA = Archeoastronomy
    AS = Archaelogical Series (International Monographs in Prehistory)
    ASPR = American School of Prehistoric Research
    CIN = Colloque interrégional sur le Néolithique
    DAF = Documents d’Archéologie Francaise
    GAAM = Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy
    ITS = Internationale Trichterbechersymposium in Schleswig
    JHA = Journal for the History of Astronomy
    LASA = Landesamt für Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt
    MAA = The Mathematical Association of America
    PH = Palaeohistoria
    RAO = Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest
    RCE = Rijksdienst voor Cultureel Erfgoed
    SEAC = European Society for Astronomy in Cultures
    TUI = Tradition und Innovation
    UAO = Uppsala Astronomical Observatory
    UMSSH = Untersuchungen und Materialien zur Steinzeit in Schleswig-Holstein



    Footnotes

    Chronology Neolithic Age
    [1.1] Boujot & Cassen 1992, pg. 197
    [1.2] Schuldt 1972, pg. 92 and further
    [1.3] Bakker 1992, pg. 155
    [1.4] Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138 - Lanting 2002, pg. 68
    [1.5] Bakker 1992, pg. 89 and 90 - Madsen’s chronology
    [1.6] Hoika 1994, pg. 85
    [1.7] Schuldt 1972, pg. 92, 106
    [1.8] Niesiolowska 1994, pg. 332
    [1.9] Boujot & Cassen 1992, pg. 197
    [1.10] Lanting & v.d. Plicht 2002, pg. 5
    [1.11] Bakker 1994a, pg. 56 en 57

    Former Dutch research
    [2.1] van Ginkel, pg. 142-143
    [2.2] van Giffen 1929, Part I, pg. 151-159
    [2.3] van Giffen 1929, Part I, pg. 153
    [2.4] van Giffen 1929, Part I, pg. 154
    [2.5] van Giffen 1929, Part II, pg. 83
    [2.6] declination 11°, Bronneger 1918, www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomagmodels/Declination.jsp

    Condition of the hunebedden
    [3.1] van Giffen 1929, van Giffen 1960, Bakker & Waterbolk 1980, van Ginkel 1999

    Accounts
    [4.1] Heggie 1989, pg. 82
    [4.2] Hoskin 2001, pg. 11
    [4.3] Heggie 1989, pg. 67
    [4.4] Heggie 1989, pg. 82
    [4.5] Heggie 1989, pg. 68
    [4.6] v.d. Waerden 1983, pg. 33
    [4.7] Schuldt 1972, pg. 106

    Orientation grid
    [6.1] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 145
    [6.2] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 129
    [6.3] Bakker 1994b, pg. 74
    [6.4] Schuldt 1972, pg. 76
    [6.5] Schuldt 1972, pg. 165
    [6.6] Chevalier 1999, pg. 57
    [6.7] Chevalier 1999, pg. 70
    [6.8] Chevalier 1999, pg. 50
    [6.9] Chevalier 1999, pg. 59
    [6.10] Chevalier 1999, pg. 55
    [6.11] Chevalier 1999, pg. 47
    [6.12] Katz 2007, pg. 388-389
    [6.13] v.d. Waerden 1954 (3rd ed.), pg. 6: It seems to be Cantor who invented the idea, that the Egyptian rope-stretchers used their ropes to construct right angles. This isn’t based on any proof.
    [6.14] Chevalier 1999, pg. 50
    [6.15] González-García & Costa-Ferrer 2003, diagram pg. 116

    Hunebedden with satelites
    [7.1] van Giffen 1929, Atlas
    [7.2] van Giffen 1929, Atlas
    [7.3] Idealised version, see the page Measurement of ground plans
    [7.4] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 129
    [7.5] Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas Part 3
    [7.6] Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas Part 3
    [7.7] Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas Part 3
    [7.8] On the page Accounts it appears, that one may exclude the possibility of a coincidence when a pattern has three lines at a predefined orientation. This is true when such a pattern occurs twice only. With two lines at a predefined orientation one needs three such situations.
    [7.9] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 126
    [7.10] Archive RCE
    [7.11] Own interpretation
    [7.12] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 130
    [7.13] Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 111 and 116

    Parallel orientation lines
    [8.1] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 144
    [8.2] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 145
    [8.3] van Ginkel 1999, Part II, pg. 174 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [8.4] van Ginkel 1999, Part II, pg. 176 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [8.5] Own measurements (see the page Measurement of ground plans) show, that the ground plan should be rotated a few degrees.

    Elliptical mounds
    [9.1] van Giffen 1929, Plate 134
    [9.2] van Giffen 1929, Plate 127
    [9.3] Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas Part 1
    [9.4] Sprockhoff 1967, Atlas Part 2
    [9.5] Own measurements with the cap stones of D40 show that the ground plan should be rotated a few degrees compared to the satelite view in Google Maps. Since this was the case with hunebed D22 (see footnote 8.5) also, the rotation has been implemented with D30 too.

    Geometry in ancient times
    [10.1] This step got inspired by the ’folding’ of the trysquare in the Zhou Bi (see the page ’Zhou Bi’ cosmology).
    [10.2] v.d. Waerden 1983, pg. 8
    [10.3] Kangshen 1999, pg. 487-488
    [10.4] v.d. Waerden 1983, pg. 6
    [10.5] v.d. Waerden 1983, pg. 8
    [10.6] Robson 2002, pg. 108, 116
    [10.7] Robson places Plimpton 322 in the tradition of the geometrical algabra. She uses the wording of the column heads as argument. Still she recognizes a functional abnormality with the takiilti (square compiler), which should make the difference between length and width. In the tablet the word is connected to the difference between diagonal and width. On this website Plimpton 322 is seen as part of a movement towards the geometrical algabra, but not as truly settled in the tradition yet.
    [10.8] Katz 2007, pg. 140
    [10.9] Katz 2007, pg. 389
    [10.10] Katz 2007, pg. 100
    [10.11] Hoyrup 2002, pg. 159-160
    [10.12] Katz 2007, pg. 102
    [10.13] As a matter of fact it is asked for the square side. But the square is merged with a ’projection’ (Hoyrup 2002, pg. 50-53), so that the given surface concerns the area of a rectangle.

    ’Zhou bi’ cosmology
    [11.1] Cullen 1996, pg. 83-91
    [11.2] v.d. Waerden 1983, pg. 27
    [11.3] Cullen, personal comment
    [11.4] Chinese Text Project: www.chinese.dsturgeon.net

    Alignments
    [12.1] Astronomical data was generated by CyberSky 4.0.6 (Schimpf 2009)
    [12.2] Bakker 1994b, pg. 74
    [12.3] Bakker 1994a, pg. 58
    [12.4] earth.usc.edu/classes/geol150/stott/variability/orbitalchanges.html
    [12.5] González-García & Costa-Ferrer 2003, pg. 117
    [12.6] González-García & Costa-Ferrer 2003, pg. 117
    [12.7] van Ginkel 1999, pg. 176 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [12.8] van Ginkel 1999, pg. 174 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [12.9] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 141
    [12.10] van Giffen 1929, Part II, pg. 243
    [12.11] van Giffen 1929, Part II, pg. 244
    [12.12] Schuldt 1972, pg. 156
    [12.13] van Ginkel 1999, pg. 183 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [12.14] van Ginkel 1999, pg. 178 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [12.15] Bakker 1994b, pg. 75
    [12.16] van Ginkel 1999, pg. 194 / Brindley & Lanting 1991/1992, pg. 138
    [12.17] Schuldt 1972, pg. 163
    [12.18] González-García 2008, pg. 171 - fig. 2. Orientations were obtained by angle measurement of the vectors.
    [12.19] The average in mountainous areas, Chevalier 1999, pg. 51
    [12.10] Müller 1997, pg. 86
    [12.21] González-García 2008, pg. 169

    Measurement of ground plans
    [14.1] www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomagmodels/Declination.jsp
    [14.2] van Giffen 1929, Atlas Plate 145
    [14.3] van Giffen 1929, Atlas

    Measurement through ’gaps’
    [15.1] van Giffen 1929, Atlas