Hunebedden (Dutch dolmens) in proportion

About orientation patterns with hunebedden (in European context)

Parallel orientation lines

The ground plans on this page are drawn based on:
- Bronneger D13 - own measurements
- Bronneger D21 - excavation plan, van Giffen [8.1]
- Bronneger D22 - excavation plan, van Giffen [8.2]

Unlike the enlarged dolmens, in hunebedden the setup of orientation lines seems to follow a pattern of parallel orientation lines. The gaps between the stones are used to give way to them and they are absent in enlarged dolmens. In that way one could talk about different orientation cultures. As stated on the page Orientation grid, D22 seems to be a mixture of both cultures. Since D22 forms a pair with D21 and this hunebed has clear parallel orientation lines, it was expected to be profitable to study both in detail.

D21 and D22

Hunebed D21 has an orientation of 43 along the side walls. The side stones stand stricktly in a line, so there is no doubt about the orientation. Between the side stones four parallel orientation lines run at an azimuth of 167. Only one line is not running free through a gap. It runs through side stone Z1, but during a restoration this stone has been put on end again by van Giffen. The contents of the undermost chamber floor is dated to Brindley horizon 1. This hunebed is older then D22, of which the earliest artefacts come from horizon 3.

D22 is inaccessable, since it lies partly hidden in the ground. Fortunately van Giffen has left a detailed excavation plan. Besides that, he made a ground plan of both dolmens together. Therefore the orientation of D22 could be determined well. D22 appears to have derived its orientation grid from D21. This grid with which the enclosed right angeled triangle is setup (see the pages Orientation grid), goes over from D21 to D22. In both dolmens the parallel orientation lines at 167° have been setup in the grid by the proportion 2:3.


Above D22 and below D21 [8.5].

D13 and D22

Beside the orientation lines at 167°, D22 also has lines at 193°. Both mirror each other around south. D22 has those properties in common with D13 near Eext. From a comparison one sees, that both hunebedden use the same orientation pattern, but don't resemble each other at all. In the figure below the red spots show the common points in their ground plans. The orientation lines depend on it in part. Please take notice, that D13 doesn't have any gaps between the side stones, as it's the case with enlarged dolmens.


Midst D22 and at right D13. In D22 the side stone Z2’ (dotted) has been corrected, for it got subside by a tree.
At left both plans are projected over each other.

Hunebedden with satelites

On the page Hunebedden with satelites it appears, that there run parallel orientation lines between the central hunebed and the satelites too. Here it concerns the orientation lines at 140° / 143° and probably also at 117°.